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United Kingdom history notes

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1. United Kingdom Kings and Queens
2. Anglo Saxon to 1066 Norman
3. Hanover to Windsor
4. Tower of London
5. House of Parliament
6. Sir Winston Churchill
7. Secret Cabinet War Rooms WW2
8. Winston Churchill WW2
9. Duke of Wellington
10. Wellington 1769-1852
11. Admiral Horatio Nelson
12. Horatio Nelson 1758-1805
13. Lord Horatio Nelson 1758-1805
14. Bernhard Law Montgomery


1714 - George I

1727 - George II

1760 - George III

1820 - George IV

1830 - William IV

1837 - Victoria

Saxe Coburg Gotha

1901 - Edward VII


1910 - George V

1936 - Edward VIII

1936 - George VI

1952 - Elizabeth II

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Page 3. Kings and Queens
 Hanover to Windsor

uk generalknowledge tower of london

The Tower of London

1066 The battle of Hastings

Harold Hardrada the king of Viking Norway who also laid claim to the Angleland throne and allied with Trostig (brother of Harold II King of Angleland) preempted Williams invasion and had landed North to meet with Trostigs forces from Scotland.

On 25th September 1066 Harold II defeated this combined Viking force and slew both leaders at Stamford Bridge. Two days later William of Normandy invaded the south and as the news reached Harold II on 1st October at York, Harold II force marched his army from York to secure London in five days and then again 58 miles in three days to meet this second invasion head on with his forces, engaging battle at Hastings on the 14th October 1066 while not waiting for reinforcement of his tired force. It became a grave error of judgement.

Although it was a very closely fought affair and run thing, the Angleand shield wall finally broke under the onslaught of the Norsemen cavalry and Williams tactics.

The Battle changed the entire social structure of England (Angleland) forever, with Harold II dead, his army destroyed and his entire political leadership defeated and killed. The Saxon Thegns were replaced by the Norman Barons and a million Saxons ruled by 10,000 Normans.

Angleland fell, but the stubborn Welsh lands did not and a huge Castle building program was began by the Marcher Lords. In London William the conqueror built his definitive monument to victory. The Tower of London.