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United Kingdom history notes
1. Kings and Queens of Britain
2. Anglo Saxon Crown to Hastings 1066
3. Kings and Queens Hanover to Windsor
4. The Tower of London
5. Westminster The House of Parliament
6. Sir Winston Churchill
7. Winston Churchill Cabinet War Rooms WW2
8. Sir Winston Churchill Top Secret Cabinet War Rooms WW2
9. The Duke of Wellington
10. Duke of Wellington 1769-1852
11. Admiral Horatio Nelson
12. Life of Admiral Horatio Nelson
13. Life of Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson 1758-1805
14. Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery
- Bernard Law Montgomery -
Field Marshal Viscount Montgomery of Alamein
British General 1887-1976
Montgomery took over the command of the British eighth army in the Egyptian Western desert 1942. Rommel's German Afrika Corps were at the gates of Cairo, but were also at the full stretch of the German supply lines. The battle of El Alamein (actually a small railway station), was a turning point in the second world war, and a complete victory for the allies. Although the Axis forces retreated to Tunisia and still fought a series of bitter rear guard and limited offensive actions, the war in Africa was all but over. This successful campaign after so many defeats made Montgomery a national British Hero.
Montgomery was later to command (on the ground) allied armies landing in Normandy (D Day). His tactical decisions allowed the U.S. forces to break the Axis lines and effect one of the most rapid armoured advances in military history. The American Generals however, tended to dislike Monty's character and his personal attitude for taking the overall credit much of that due to other able Generals own tactical skills.
Monty went on to plan the Market Garden operation (the air-assault of the main Dutch bridge river crossings at Veghel, Son, Grave, Nijmegen and Arnhem) an attempt to shorten the war in one operation. A partly successful mission but overall costly, a Bridge to Far.
Later his tactics combined with American Generals own abilities enabled the Allied army to counter the German Ardennes offensive on the northern flank and his army group launched the assault on the Rhine and the 'Drive to the Baltic'. Monty accepted the German Instrument of surrender 1820 hours 4 may 1945 at his tactical headquarters on Luneburg Heath, his war and the European war was over.
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery
Monty's own American manufactured Lee Grant armoured fighting vehicle, used during World War Two in the Western Desert area.
Viscount Bernard Law
Montgomery in uniform.