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United Kingdom history notes
1.Wales and the Welsh history to 54BC
2.Wales and the Welsh history 43AD to 856AD
3.Wales and the Welsh history 878AD to 1154AD
4.Wales and the Welsh history 1165AD to 1400AD
5.Welsh history 1403AD to 1642AD
6.Welsh history observations
7.Welsh National Anthem in English
8.Welsh Prince Madoc in America
9.Twmbarlwm Siluris Celtic Hill Fort
1165 AD Welsh defeat English invasion army (with the help of a violent storm at the time of battle) after uniting under the banners of Rhys ap Gruffydd, Owain Gwynedd and Owain Cyfeiliog.
The three would be Welsh Kings then vied for power and turned on each other.
Wales is again divided but regain territories by 1175 after further localised battles.Tales of King Arthur and Camelot originate from around this period, after the end of Norman occupation and expansion of Welsh culture.
1189 AD Richard the lion heart crowned King of England. LLywelyn (I) increases power in Wales while the English King begins the third Crusade and English forces are depleted.
1199 King John succeeds to English throne. LLywelyn (I) joins the baronial revolt against the English King and wins recognition for Welsh rights in the Magna Carta.
The Welsh King marries King Johns daughter.
LLywelyn (I) to avoid English invasion accepts the English Kings ultimate sovereignty allowing Wales to gradually grow in power.
1240 AD LLywelyn (I) dies with no successor after disowning his son for not recognising the English Kings authority and inviting invasion... LLywelyn ap Gruffydd seizes power, calling himself Prince Of Wales, to avoid conflict with the English King.
He joins the English Barons in their conflict with King Henry III. King Henry is forced to recognise LLywelyn (II) as Prince of Wales (But not King) in the treaty of Montgomery. LLywelyn (II) would become the only native born Prince of Wales.
1272 AD Edward I succeeds to English throne and has the intention of not allowing independent states to border his own kingdom. LLywelyn (II) refuses to attend the coronation or be part of Edwards Parliament. LLywelyn (II) does not recognise the supremacy of the English king.
1277 AD Edward I invades Wales and declares LLywelyn (II) a rebel. LLywelyn's army gives a fierce resistance, but has it's supply base cut by the Edwards fleet at Anglesey.
LLywelyn (II) sues for peace and a treaty was signed with LLywelyn (II) keeping the title Prince Of Wales, but with no power for administration of Wales.
Edward instigates a huge Castle building program to subdue thoughts and actions of Welsh independence.
1282 AD Welsh anger finally overflows and LLywelyn (II) along with his brother Dafydd attack the English and an uprising ensues.
After a series of successful battles the Welsh are defeated by Edward I who launches a massive attack on both land and sea. LLywelyn (II) is killed after seeking support at Aberdaw Castle to which he was refused entry.
His brother continues the rebellion, but is also betrayed and captured. Dafydd is hung drawn and quartered.
Edward increases further his Castle building program. The Marcher Lords now have rule of most of the Welsh lands in the name of the English King.
1400 AD After two and a half centuries of English rule Owain Glyndwr declares himself Prince Of Wales, and embarks on rebellion against the occupation of Wales by England.
The Welsh flock to his banner and the English King Henry IV launches an invasion, but his army is defeated by violent weather storms and fierce resistance. [ More]
Wales and the Welsh history
1165 AD to 1400 AD