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United Kingdom history notes
1.Wales and the Welsh history to 54BC
2.Wales and the Welsh history 43AD to 856AD
3.Wales and the Welsh history 878AD to 1154AD
4.Wales and the Welsh history 1165AD to 1400AD
5.Welsh history 1403AD to 1642AD
6.Welsh history observations
7.Welsh National Anthem in English
8.Welsh Prince Madoc in America
9.Twmbarlwm Siluris Celtic Hill Fort
43 AD Romans invade again, but with overwhelming and determined force. The superior tactics and weaponry of the Roman army outmatch the resistance from the Celtic Tribes and gradually they are subdued, resorting to a guerrilla campaign so as to avoid, where possible, an open battle. King Caradog (Caractacus) organises the defence, commanding the Ordovices and Silurian Tribes and he enlists the help of various tribes that inhabit the present day Wales area.
51 AD Caractacus defeated in a pitched battle with Roman army. He escapes but is betrayed by the Brigantes tribe, captured and sent to Rome. He humbles the Roman Emperor and people with his defiance and dignified honesty, they pardon him for his crime of resisting Roman aggression. A great Roman fortress was built at Caerleon on Usk South Wales, as a base to subdue the tribes who still resisted after the loss of their leader, it was attacked many times causing large losses to the Romans, but the fortress also depleted the Britain's fighting strength allowing them to gain the upper hand.
60 AD Queen Boudicca leads a revolt against Roman occupation. Romans attack Druid stronghold of Anglesey island and destroy most of the religious order. Queen Boudicca destroys London while Roman troops are too few to resist and occupied in Anglesey. Romans gather strength and defeat the British in a pitched battle in the midland area. Queen Boudicca commits suicide.
77 AD Romans defeat last organised tribal resistance on the island. Also Romans complete the destruction of the Druid faith by again crossing to the island of Anglesey and slaughtering the remaining priests.
383-484 AD Roman rule ends on the island of Britain. They withdraw back to Italy to defend their shrinking Empire and leave the islanders to defend themselves. The British have no single organised army or dominant King or Queen, so Chieftains assert their own local control. The Roman Empire itself eventually disintegrates under constant attacks and border changes.
The Celtic Irish Known as Scots start to migrate to Britain, leading to Welsh Duke Cunedda retiring to Wales with his army from the North of the Island and the Irish to declare a new country of Scots land (Scotland). Cunedda prevents the Irish Scots tribe from overrunning the entire Island through diplomacy and battle.
490 AD Picts tribe raid from Northern Scotland and Saxons from Germanic areas invade. King Arthur of the Britain's defeat the Saxons in pitched battles, saving Wales from occupation and starting his Legend. North, of Welsh Britain (Lower Scotland) and Welsh Cornwall both separated from Wales become overrun. The present day Welsh language starts to form from Brythonic mixed with Latin.
645 AD Cadwaladr a Local Welsh King of Gwynedd fights English Local King Of Northumbria. The Welsh of lower Scotland are finally forced to leave, leaving the Scots to become a totally dominant culture there.
757 AD King of English Mercia, Offa, builds his defensive earthwork to keep out the Welsh tribes. English tribal borders begin to shape the basis of a new country of England from the Kingdoms of Mercia Northumbria and Wessex.
851 AD Vikings begin raids on the island of Britain from Denmark.
856 AD The Welsh King Rhodri The Great unites the tribes and defeats the raiders, killing
Gorm the Norse leader on Anglesey island. He leads the Welsh until his death fighting the English of Mercia, when Wales was again split into three separate regions each with their own leaders who fight local wars (Although England was invaded to become a Norse - Kingdom living under 'Dane-Law' Wales held its borders and remained a free land). [ More]
Wales and the Welsh history
43 AD to 856 AD