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United Kingdom history notes
Some of the general events in time.
Kenneth I first united both the tribes of Scots and Picts.
In 1174 Scotland became a fiefdom of England.
In 1189 Richard I granted Scotland’s freedom. But, closely allied with France, Scotland became more politically active and remained a threat to the English crown. Edward I subdued Scotland and William Wallace lead a Scottish rebellion.
1314 Robert I (The Bruce) defeated the English army at the battle of Bannockburn
1328 English accept Scotland’s independence. Internal power struggles of government weaken Scotland.
1513 James IV and the majority of Scotland’s noblemen killed at the battle of Flodden.
The protestant Reformation, via the preacher John Knox, split the country between both Catholic and Protestant methods of Divine faith. In both external cultural differences and attempts to create influence, England supported the Protestants and France supported the Catholics.
1513 James V married French Catholic Mary of Guise, whose subsequent daughter, eventually became Mary Queen Of Scots.
1567 Mary relinquished Scotland’s crown under Protestant pressure. Her son James VI assumed the crown of Scotland and in 1601 he also assumed the crown of England (becoming James I of England).
Scotland and The English Civil War
Scotland initially supported the anti royal parliamentarians during the English Civil war. But a Pro-Catholic King Charles I, to enlist Scottish support and remain in power, gave concessions' (basically forms of bribery) to the influential Presbyterian (Protestant) faith movement.
Although this act allowed Presbyterianism to become the National Church of Scotland,it did not enable the free and willing support toward the English King by the Scottish people and the King was beheaded by the English Parliamentarians after the English Civil War.
1688 King James II forced into exile for his support of Catholic beliefs.
1692 William III massacred the Macdonald Clan at Glencoe.
1707 Jacobite (mainly Highland Clans) unrest and rebellion to restore a Stuart King, forced the Act of Union (Constitutional merger of the Scottish and English Crown, to prevent any future Independent king or Queen of Scotland)
The Jacobite rebellion
While living in Rome, James Edward, son of King James II and whom most Scots believed to be their rightful King. Allowed his own son, Charles Edward Stuart, better known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, to return to Scotland and with Jacobite support, seize the kingdom for him.
The Roman Catholic King of France (Louis XV) had, initially, agreed to invade England and restore the Stuart Kingship, but had then changed his mind. With the support of the largest and most powerful clans (MacDonald’s and Cameron’s) other clans joined the Prince, to form a Tartan army who, within two months, had captured Edinburgh without a battle and sent England itself into a panic. The Scottish army destroyed an English army at Preston pans near Edinburgh a week later, who had marched to retake the Capital.
After these victories many Scots flocked to the Tartan army and the French King again promised his support.
With growing confidence, Bonnie Prince Charlie resolved to march on London itself and oust the English King, hoping for local support as his army marched, from anti royal, English recruits.
In December the army marched toward London, through the English towns of Preston, Manchester and Derby. The support of the French King did not again come, neither did many Englishmen join his cause and with the news of a large English Royal army of some 30,000 strong approaching, the Tartan army retreated back toward Scotland.
The French King then sent a token force of three, expendable regiments to show his continuing 'support' for the Scottish revolt, but remained sure not to alienate the English King with an overt display of French Force, preferring to watch events and side with any eventual victor. [ More]
Scotland history notes United Tribes to Jacobite Rebellion