History of the China area and the Emperors Dynasty Chronology
1030-221 B.C. The Zhou tribes in the Western area of China eventually overthrew the Shang Dynasty and set up their own, developing laws in written form and money to exchange goods for trade.
During this new Zohou Dynasty, the Classical literature of China was begun (e.g. Confucius Philosophy) the basis of which shaped the thought of various internal governments and society as a whole.
Emperor Quin Shihuangdi first united China by conflict and defeat of rival would be Emperors. On his death, he was buried with an army of statues now known as
(The Terracotta army). The following War of States period again broke this single Empire of China into smaller 'kingdoms' with no single leader (Emperor).
221-206 B.C. The Qin Dynasty again united China, defeating all rival would be kings. This period saw the majority of The Great Wall of China being built by Emperor Shi Huangdi and formation of a central government structure.
The Han Dynasty’s expanded the Empire and developed a more complex internal structure of Government. Around this period Buddhism (from India) and Taoism became the main influences along with the thoughts and writing of Confucius. Trade, by the means of overland links were formed with Europe.
The Han Dynasty’s saw a popular large rebellion by the people and China’s Empire was split again into three separate states (kingdoms) each with their own leaders and Dynasty’s. A.D.220-280
A.D. 581-618 The Sui Dynasty then united China against a Tatar invasion that had threatened all the states.
A.D. 618-907 The following Tang Dynasty saw a huge rise in poetry, printing matter and artistic objects. Then it suffered popular rebellion and internal conflict that again split and unified China, this time into ten kingdoms and five separate Dynasty’s.
The song Dynasty’s eventually pacified most of China, restoring civil order and calm in much of the country. But Mongol leader Genghis Khan took advantage of this fragile, almost unified and very weak China and by 1210 had conquered a huge part of the country, establishing his own Mongol Empire.
Mongol leader Kublai Khan was the founder of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) and began trade with European Nations (Marco Polo, first white European to enter China from Venice visited at this time).
Popular rebellion eventually drove the Mongol occupation from China.
The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) re-united China and produced very fine porcelain products, exporting them to Europe. Beijing became the Capitol city.
Manchuria invaded China creating their own Dynasty (Qing).
The Manchurian Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) expanded the Empire of China. But eventually, through a popular rebellion, war with Japan and a series of events initiated by complex internal and external influences, this Dynasty saw the eventual Opium Wars and occupation of Hong Kong by Britain (1839-42) all of which, in turn, led to the anti western powers Boxer Rebellion (1900).
In a troubled land, Sun Yat Sen (of The National Peoples Party) led a popular revolution (1911-1912) and overthrew the very last Emperor (Henri Pu Yi) who was only a child and established the Republic of China. General Yuan Shih Kai then became dictator of China.
On this dictators death, over-all control of China again fragmented, leading to internal Civil War and conflict. In 1921 the communist party of China was founded and became an alternative to the National party. After an invasion by Japan (1932) and the eventual end of the second World War, Communist leader Chairman Mao Zedong became leader of the new People's Republic of China (1949), while the National party remained in control of the small island they call Taiwan. The people of China who had all sought unity after war became fragmented. The problem remains how to become a united China without war with citizen fighting citizen. To rush such an issue in any one leaders lifetime would not solve the problem just cause another more serious. Friendship is the China way ahead and the course of Great leaders.
China history notes Dynasty Chronology