12th 13th 14th Centuries. Saw German land enlargement, to lands between the Oder and Elbe rivers and the formation of the Hanseatic league of Allied Germanic cities (Forming a strong trading and Naval power).
By 1438 the Title of Holy Roman Emperor was to become assimilated into the natural line of the Hapsburg family.
1517 Saw the Protestant Reformation of Martin Luthur, with the result of a Civil War. In the Augsburg Peace' that followed, Emperor Charles V relented, so that free religious persuasion could be pursued by all the various Princes in their own land areas.
The Thirty Years War of 1618-1648, saw The Holy Roman Empire decimated and reduced to a name only, by more religious and political strife, between Emperor and Princes. After it, the Local states were then in dominance. Prussia took Silesia from Austria in 1740. Keeping this area, while Austria had two Wars. One of Succession, 1740-1748, then the Seven Years War, of 1756-1763. In 1772-1795 both Prussia and Austria joined Russia and Partitioned the State of Poland.
Between 1792-1815, Napoleon Bonaparte, as part of the French Revolutionary Wars abolished the Holy Roman Empire (1806). But with Napoleons defeat at Waterloo, the Congress of Vienna award the Rhineland, Westphalia and part of Saxony to Prussia, for their military involvement in his defeat. A Confederation of 39 separate, but United' German States was formed. During the period 1848-1849 many of these States saw Liberal Revolutions for German total unity, which were suppressed.
In 1862 Otto Von Bismarck became the Prime Minister of Prussia and after the Seven Weeks War of 1866, Prussia defeated Austria and dissolved this unification of United States of Germany, establishing a similar North Germany Confederation,of United States, under Prussian control.
1870-1871 saw the Southern German States agreeing to total German Unification after the Franco-Prussian War. The German Empire then officially came into being.
The King of Prussia, Wilhelm I, became Emperor of the German Empire and Otto Von Bismarck became chancellor of Germany. However, in 1890, the new King, Wilhelm II, dismissed Otto Von Bismarck. The King seeking for Germany, a new role as a major power and political entity on the World stage. In 1914, this new political role, led to Germany encouraging Austria to attack Serbia and this action in turn, began the horrid events of World War One.
At the end of this War (1918) the Monarchy was dissolved and the following various adverse Political and Economic events, led to the formation of a new kind of leadership, with Adolf Hitler leader of the Nazi Party becoming the new Chancellor of Germany in 1933.
Adolf Hitler took the title of Leader (Fuhrer) in 1934 and with it total control of Germany. By 1939 Adolf Hitler's actions as new `leader`(attempting to enlarge German land and his own power through political, persecution, and military means) led the Planet into the darkness and destruction of World War Two.
He ensured that humans capacity for disregard of fellow humans and persecution would reach a whole new dark level in this ‘modern world'. [ More]
Germany history notes
12th Century to Adolf Hitler