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1.Wales and the Welsh history to 54BC
2.Wales and the Welsh history 43AD to 856AD
3.Wales and the Welsh history 878AD to 1154AD
4.Wales and the Welsh history  1165AD to 1400AD
5.Welsh history 1403AD to 1642AD
6.Welsh history observations

7.Welsh National Anthem in English
8.Welsh Prince Madoc in America
9.Twmbarlwm Siluris Celtic Hill Fort

878 AD King Anarawed (Rhodri's son) continues fighting against the Danes and forms an alliance with the English King Alfred The Great.

Later an army from English Mercia and Wessex, join with a mixed Welsh army including the 'Men of Gwent' to eventually defeat the Danes. However, this lead to the English Kingdom of Wessex to expand and reach the borders of Wales once the Danish threat was over.


1039 AD Gruffed ap LLywelyn (LLywelyn The Great) defeats English King Leofrig of Mercia in battle at Offers Dyke earthworks. The Welsh King then proceeds to attack the other Kingdoms within Wales in an attempt to become the overall King and ruler. Eventually he unites Wales.


1063 AD Harold of Wessex, determined to destroy Welsh military power,launches an invasion of Wales. Harold bribes soldiers close to Welsh King Gruffed ap LLywelyn (LLywelyn The Great), to kill him. They accept and the Welsh Kings head is sent to Harold.


1066 AD The English King (Harold of Wessex) defeat's the Danes in battle, and then turns southward to face the Norman invasion of England where he is killed at Hastings.


1067 AD Norman's invade Gwent South Wales and quickly build a system of Castles for defence, under the leadership of the Knight William Fitzosbern.


1087 AD William the Conqueror dies. His son William Rufus tries to subdue the Welsh with Genocide but fails.


1100 AD His successor Henry I also attempts to subdue the Welsh.

The brutal Marcher Lords are created on the Welsh Borders and the Norman fudal system creates increasing Castle numbers.

The native Welsh tribes,who throughout their history had never created permanent towns, withdraw into their mountains, unable to defeat the Norman military.

Norman's encourage immigration of English Anglo Saxons to fill the new towns and the Welsh language begins to be phased out.


1135 AD Henry I dies and England area is engulfed by Civil War. The Marcher Lords side with the Empress Matilda rather than King Stephen.

The Welsh under King Gruffudd ap Cynan, along with his son Owain and son in law Prince Gruffudd ap Rhys, attack the Norman's in the North, after hearing of Hywel ap Maredudd attacks in Breconshire.

Princess Gwellian, wife of Prince Gruffudd ap Rhys and daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan, leads a small army to face the English, her army is betrayed and surrounded.

The Princess and her small army fight to the death, but she is wounded and captured along with her son Morgan, Maelgwn was killed trying to protect his mother. Princess Gwellian and her also wounded son Morgan are executed by beheading. However, with the South Welsh now also in rebellion, the Normans retreat from most of Welsh lands.

The English King, Stephen, does not have the manpower to fight in Wales, as the English Civil War escalates.


1154 AD Rhys ap Gruffydd aspires to become Welsh King and increases his power in South Wales.

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Page 3. Wales
and the Welsh history
878 AD to 1154 AD